THE THREE COMPLEXITIES OF THE ENGLISH ALPHABETIC CODE

1. one sound (phoneme) can be represented by one, two, three or four letters: e.g. k, sh, ng, igh, eigh

2. one sound (phoneme) can be represented by different spellings (graphemes): e.g. /oa/ can be represented by o, oa, ow, oe, o-e, eau, ough

3. one spelling can represent multiple sounds (or ‘various’ phonemes): e.g. ‘ough’ can be:- /oa/ though, /or/ thought, /oo/ through, /ou/ plough, /u/ thorough

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